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How do you get the thick brown crust off of the outer part of your mineral?

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I’m new to rock hounding and every rock I find just about has that outer layer of a brown crust which is I can’t seem to get it all off? I’ve washed them in warm water and dish washing soap, iron out, table grinder, lemon juice and a steel brush hooked to my drill and I still can’t get it all off. What’s the best way to completely get it off? I live in the upper Cumberland part of Tennessee and Ive got a bunch of blue chalcedony, jasper, chert, geodes, a ton of quartz and a few pieces of opal. I would like to make them shine. Thanks.

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I also struggle with the same thing on agates. I use muratic acid and let it sit for a few days, just make sure it’s quartz/chalcedony in there cause other minerals can be destroyed by the acid but even that doesn’t really get it off that much. So I bought a high pressure sprayer to blast it off but with all that said the black crust is still very stubborn. I’m from Murfreesboro, but moved away will be heading up there to visit do you mind sharing some good locations to hunt? 

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I live between Livingston and Hilham in Overton County. Down the road from my house on Hwy 85 known as Hilham Highway their is a place called Flatt Creek. It’s not to far from twin. It’s on a straight stretch going towards Hilham. You’ll see a small bridge before heading up a big hill and a creek running underneath it. That’s Flatt Creek or you could get on Hwy 136 that goes to Standing Stone from Cookeville. Their is a dollar store on the right hand side in the Hardy’s Chapel area and further down your left is a gas station called Valero. Just past that their is a bridge with I think has part of the roaring river going underneath which is also a swimming hole slash kayaking place. Good place to look for rocks and then a few miles past that going towards standing stone state park is another bridge and on your left side is a creek that follows the road and it’s mostly dry with a lot of good stuff. I’ve found a lot of quartz and supposedly blue chalcedony there. Have fun and good luck. Beware of snakes just in case.

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