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About 40 miles from the ruins of Gran Quivira, and 15 miles west of Mountainair, New Mexico is the second largest of the Saline Pueblos. It is called Abo.

These folks had a sweet little pueblo here on a little creek with a patch of farmland to grow some corn. When all the other ancient pueblos failed, the people came here. This spot is where the last vestiges of the Saline people wound up when drought and starvation changed this part of the country forever.

As you drive to the ruins you see the procession back in time. Along the highway there are the ruins of a 1970’s filling station and a 1940’s ranch house. A mobile home sits along a side road. As you travel up the canyon a mile it turns to a series of dwellings that are 100-300 years old and then the architecture changes to ruins that date back at least to the year 1000 A.D. So folks have lived in this canyon without too much interruption for more than 1000 years now.

Like Gran Quivira, much of Abo remains unexcavated. Many mounds remain and you can see hundreds of feet of exposed footings. What remains is well preserved and you can get a very good idea of what the city may have looked like when it was finally abandoned.

The kiva was built into the architecture of the church by the priest who directed the work. No one can explain why this was allowed as the Spanish had a habit if skewering natives that held on to pagan beliefs and filling kivas with the feet of the heathens. Still, this one was front row center and it is theorized that it was used in a unique conversion ceremony. Kivas are very common in New Mexico and so are ancient churches, but never are they found existing together except here in these pueblos.

It was noted that the natives here were anxious to convert to Christianity and readily accepted the explanations of the Church. The Spanish found the first Genizaro population in these pueblos and the converted natives of Abo undoubtedly were the first converts to populate the Spanish villages in the Rio Grande valley. Thus they became the first dark skinned Spanish speaking people in what is today the United States.

From the location you can assume that man had camped here at this spot since he grew thumbs. Abo was just what we call the city that was here when the Spanish stumbled through. Man had lived in this little canyon and on the surrounding bedrock since the days of Clovis and Folsom man. Abo sits in a beautiful mountain pass with the Rio Grande valley to the west and the valuable salt deposits and the buffalo plains to the east. It still seems to be the ideal place to sit under a cottonwood tree beside an ancient stone wall and spend a few hours listening to the creek flow by.

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I agree very interesting never knew this..........Thanks Bob When I saw the heading I thought it was going to be about Aborigines......In a sense it kinda was

As Aboriginal as they come, just not as dark as some Aboriginals come. We gottum mocha muchachos instead of those dark ones speaking that funny Australian speak. Ours don't call you "mate" they call you "ese". And they drive Chevy Impalas with hydraulic rams underneath the front ends and they have tatoos of La Virgen De Guadalupe on their backs and wear their socks all pulled up past their knees. Other than that I believe it is about the same.

As a matter of fact these proto-latinos painted their faces black across the nose and eyes. Didn't some of your continent's Aboriginal folks paint theirs white in contrast?

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Australian Aboriginal culture is widely seen as one of the oldest known living cultures on Earth.

Dating back tens of thousands of years before European settlement, Aboriginal people roamed the Australian landscape, living in harmony in a nomadic partnership with nature. Australian Aboriginal people are a diverse group of people, living vastly different lifestyles in each corner of the country. There are up to 700 traditional societies in Australia and over 200 languages.

Indigenous Australians survived in harsh climatic and environmental conditions which ranged from cold temperate to hot tropical, coping with arid conditions and torrential rains. They have dwelt for many thousands of years in ways that sustained their societies while conserving resources, protecting fragile soils and leaving a light footprint on the environment.


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You better be glad that the Spanish did not colonize Australia or those Aborigine vatos would be all up in the barrio and chit you know man? And with a lot of ol ladies and a couple of chicas tambien! With lowriders ese and a case of Budweiser Ay la chingada! :hahaha: :hahaha: :hahaha: :hahaha: :hahaha:

I had no idea that the peoples of the Australian continent lived peacefully between tribes. Really? Are you certain? That has to be pretty unique on the globe.

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Rare photo of the Cracka-tinni Tribe

Experts thought the infamous Cracka-tinni tribe had been wiped out years ago until researchers stumbled upon a small cluster of tribe members in the middle of the harsh Australian outback.

The researchers were forced to approach quietly, lest they scare the inhabitants away before getting a chance to photograph them in their natural state...


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Sorry if I confused everyone as well as hi-jacking BBs post.

But I suppose what I'm trying to get at is that society, as we call it, regardless of make and model have all tried to better themselves. I felt that the Australian Aborigine was a good example. A unique species that has carried on even though their offspring have tried to fit in with "society".

If you drift back and manage to talk and understand the aboriginal community. I'm talking the elders, their history, their unique knowledge of survival, the plants they use, the medicine they use has potential. But their offshoots wanted better, something unique, but they were met with resistence. Alcohol was one but I could list a lot more.

Things will never change, humans are what they are. They're either for you or against you and I know a lot of my fellow country men are split in regards to aborigines. As I said before, you have the elders that are unique. You have the ones that try to assimilate but failed and took on the wrath. But then you have the ones who managed to beat it off and have become accepted and truly unique. I could list off a heap, artists, musicians, athletes, scientific that have all succeeded. It happens in Africa, it happens here in America with the Native Americans. Hell it happens everywhere. We need to look at the ancestors, understand them, they offer a lot. We block them out because it's not the "norm" besides, we're scared to admit a problem because we might get our a$$ kicked.

Why do we need to be intimidated by peer pressure? History and fact rule. There's a lot going on if we just took a little time to understand our ancestors regardless of what country.

Ok, getting a little on a rant. I could post a lot more images of oppression as well as comedy. I take them all in stride because if you put them all together, they make an amazing picture.

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Hey there my Aussie friend! You can hijack my thread any time you get the hankerin'! it is all in the spirit of appreciating our history and the indigenous cutures anyhoo. So rock on! Anything that you can relate to us about the Aborigine is just peachy by me. It fits right in with the little pueblo ruins in Abo just fine!

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Australian Mining History

Mining in Australia probably started with the arrival of Aborigines some 40,000 years ago when they fossicked for stones suitable for tools and weapons, and dug for ochre which they used for decorative use.

"Modern" Australian mining followed the arrival of European settlers on the eastern seaboard in 1788, with the quarrying and shaping of Hawkesbury sandstone for early buildings at Sydney Cove. The first discovery of coal was made by escaped convicts in the Newcastle area in 1791. Over the next few years coal was reported at many other centres to the north and south of Sydney.

The coal industry began in 1798 when ship owners gathered surface coal at Newcastle and brought it to Sydney for sale. Export of Newcastle coal began in 1799 with a shipment to India.

Traces of metallic minerals, particularly gold, were found in the early part of the 19th century, mainly by shepherds and convicts. However, there was no concerted effort towards mining because an archaic English law demanded that all gold and silver remained the property of the Crown. In fact, Britain did not encourage people in the young colony to explore for minerals. The colony was first and foremost a penal settlement, and most of its inhabitants in the early years were preoccupied with learning how to feed themselves.

Lead was the first metal mined in Australia from the Glen Osmond hills on the outskirts of Adelaide in 1841. This was followed by the commemcement of copper mining at Kapunda in the same general area in 1842. Copper was also discovered at Burra Burra (SA) in 1845.

When many Australians migrated to the United States in 1849 following reports of rich gold discoveries in California, the New South Wales Government realised that if the wave of migration was to be reversed, it needed to provide incentives for Australians to find gold in their own country. Accordingly, rewards were offered for the discovery of "payable" gold. In April 1851 the first reported discovery of payable gold was made by John Lister and William Tom at the junction of Lewis Ponds and Summer Hill Creeks, Ophir. Edward Hargraves, an associate of Lister and Tom, took their gold to the Colonial Secretary and then claimed the reward which included 5,000 pounds to Hargraves; and 500 pounds each to Lister, Tom and the Rev. W.B. Clarke. However, recently-discovered evidence in letters addressed to William Tipple Smith from the Government acknowledged the existence of gold at Ophir in 1848.

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The remains of the Garfield Water Wheel stone abutments stand in the bush just north of Chewton. The 24m diameter wheel was erected in 1887 and drove a 23 head quartz stamp battery until 1904, when steam took over.


The Wallaby Mine, about 5km east of Beechworth on the Beechworth Forest Drive, was worked from 1869-1912. open stopes, water races, tunnels and the remains of a 12 head stamp battery which was used to crush gold-bearing ore.


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